Hemorrhoids is one of the most common clinical anorectal diseases. The prevalence rate of hemorrhoids in China has exceeded 50% among adults and is estimated to be approximately 59% in pregnant women, presenting significant demand for treatment given its distracting symptoms of recurrent bleeding, pain and discomfort. Hemorrhoids may be internal, external or mixed, while internal hemorrhoids are classified into Grades I to IV depending on hemorrhoidal vessels’ prominence and severity of the prolapse.
Hemorrhoids therapies mainly include conservative therapy, device therapy and surgical hemorrhoidectomy. The conservative therapy targets patients with Grade I to IV hemorrhoids and may be used in combination with other therapies in all disease stages. The device therapy mainly treats patients with Grade I to III or surgically ineligible Grade IV hemorrhoids. The surgical hemorrhoidectomy is mainly for patients with Grade I to III hemorrhoids who received ineffective treatment with the conservative or device therapy. Rubber band ligation is the most frequently used device therapy owing to its low reoccurrence. Conventional surgical excision is still the most common surgical procedure for Grade III-IV hemorrhoid patients.